This page contains downloadable pdf files that may be of interest to you. Just click on the pdf icon to the left of the info and you will receive a file with the information
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Glass Flow
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There are any number of souls that have the idea that the reason the glass in old colonial homes as well as in old stained glass windows is thicker at the bottom is because that glass having been described as a “super cooled liquid” is still actually flowing. The idea that glass is actually “flowing” is an urban legend! This paper by Dr. Robert Brill of the CMoG should help clarify this oft held belief.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Plaster/Silica
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This is the actual page from Glass Notes showing and describing how to calculate the correct ratio of plaster/silica to water in order to optimize the strength of your molds.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Annealing Castings
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This is the chart found in Glass Notes on one of the Annealing Castings pages.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Skamol Annealer
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This is one page from Glass Notes and it depicts two views of building the Skamol Annealer. There is a complete set of drawings in the book that I believe are easy to follow. For those of you that do not know, Skamol is material that is not carcinogenic like fiber insulation and has excellent insulating qualities. It is rigid and easily cut and routed. It is very popular these days for ease of use and the health benefits it offers over fiber.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Heat Transfer
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I receive a good number of phone calls asking if I know what the skin temperature of an annealer is if given the internal oven temperature. This chart supplied by the Skamol Co. gives the skin temperature for an oven with an internal temperature of 1700° F. with a wall thickness of 2 inches of Skamol V1100 (600) slabs and a back-up of 2 inches Super 1100E calcium silicate slabs. Page 2 gives the results in an easy to read diagram. I used 1700° F as an extreme temperature. If you build one of these beauties and you have a lower internal temperature you will have a cooler skin temperature.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Sugar Acid
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This is the formula that was in the 3rd edition of Glass Notes but was not included in the 4th. It was rarely used and the materials were very hard to find. I have been told there is a small interest in it so I’m posting it here with a caveat: Use at your own risk. The materials found in this formula can cause sever burns. It must be used in a well ventilated area and you should wear a protective face mask. The formula can only polish lead based glass but will give a frosted sheen to soda/lime glass. Don't call me and ask where to get the chemicals. I have no idea.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Glass from Bottles
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Every once in awhile I receive an inquiry on the feasibility of using pop and beer bottle cullet in the small studio. I usually send two pdf documents, one prepared in 1997 by Norm Courtney, for the CWC (Clean Washington Center) located in Seattle WA, and the next report on beer/pop bottles. Norm’s final report was titled, Post-Consumer Container Glass, Remelting Process Assessment. It was very thorough and included, among other things the processes incorporated by three small studios in the use of post-consumer recycled glass products in their glass melts. The report outlined the chemical additions needed to make the bottle cullet workable. Norm's conclusion at the end of his report stated: “Depending on the application, the use of recycled glass (cullet) can also dramatically reduce energy and raw material costs.” This is an excellent document for any studio interested in using bottle cullet.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Cullet from Bottles
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This report based on Norm’s research concluded with the benefits and drawbacks of using pop bottle cullet. Before going and clearing the beer bottles off the tables at your local bar to melt in your furnace it should be noted that there are some caveats involved with the melting of post-consumer cullet. It should also be noted that the reports are over ten years old and although the costs of materials outlined have changed a good deal the processes outlined remain pretty much the same.
If you have an interest in the use of post-consumer glass in your glass process then these reports should be a great help.
Enter the name for this tabbed section: Tough as Steel
It Looks a Lot Like Glass, But It's Tough as Steel
NY Times, Jan. 11, 2011


The moment a crack forms in a piece of glass, it is prone to spread. That's because although glass is very strong and resistant to deformation, it lacks the tough­ness that metals like aluminum and steel have.
Now, researchers from the Cali­fornia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Berkeley, report that they have devised a new type of metallic glass that is as strong as glass, but as tough as steel — the tough­est of all metals.
"Typically with materials it's very hard to get both toughness and strength; either you get one or the other," said Marios Demetriou, a materials engineer at Caltech and the study's lead author.
He and his colleagues re­port their findings in the journal Nature Materials.
There is, however, a catch to the seemingly transformational discovery. "The cost of this material is very high, and it's essentially high enough to be prohibitive for commodity-type products," Dr. Demetriou said, though he did not have exact numbers.
But the researchers, who are patenting the new material, believe that in small amounts it could be usable.
"It could be useful, for instance, in orthodontic implants due to the very high resistance required," Dr. Demetriou said.
Metallic glass was first discovered about 50 years ago at Cal­tech. Although it has the atomic structure of glass, it is opaque and has a shiny, metallic look. Currently, other compositions of metallic glass are used to make golf clubs, electronic casings and watch bezels.